Directory Mappings Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX SOLARIS Tru64
Root filesystem / {/dev/sda1} / {/dev/ad0s1a} / / {/dev/hd4} / {/dev/vg00/lvol1} / {/dev/vx/dsk/rootvol} / {/dev/rz0a}
Home Directories /home /usr/home /home /home {/dev/hd1} /home {/dev/vg00/lvol4} /export/home
/dev/vx/dsk/home}
Temp Directory /tmp /tmp /tmp /tmp {/dev/hd3} /tmp {/dev/vg00/lvol6} /tmp
/dev/vx/dsk/swapvol}
System Files /usr /usr {/dev/ad0s1f} /usr /usr {/dev/hd2} /usr {/dev/vg00/lvol7} /usr /usr {/dev/rz0g}
Variable Files /var /var {/dev/ad0s1e} /var /var {/dev/hd9var} /var {/dev/vg00/lvol8} /var
User Accounts Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX Solaris Tru64
Password files /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/passwd
/etc/shadow /etc/master.passwd /etc/master.passwd /etc/security/passwd /tcb/files/auth/r/root /etc/shadow
Groups file /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group /etc/group
/etc/security/group /etc/logingroup
Maximum # of user ID 65535 65535 65535 4294967295 2147483647 2147483647 65535
Allow/Deny remote login /etc/securetty /etc/ttys /etc/security/user /etc/securetty /etc/default/login /etc/securettys
{ttyp1} {secure} {rlogin=true} {console} {CONSOLE=/dev/console} {ttyp1}
User nobody's id # 99 65534 32767 4294967294 −2 60001 & 65534(nobody4) 65534
Group nobody's id # 99 65534 32767 4294967294 -2(nogroup) 60002 & 65534(nogroup) 65534
Recover root password linux single ok boot -s boot -s boot from CD/Tape >boot boot cdrom -s press the HALT Button or (Control-P)
vi /etc/shadow passwd root mount -u -o rw / Installation/Maintenance Interact with IPL ? Y mkdir /tmp/a >>>boot -fl s
passwd root Start Limited Shell ISL>hpux -iS mount /dev/c0t0d0s0 /tmp/a lsmbstartup
getrootfs hdisk0 vi /tcb/files/auth/r/root vi /tmp/a/etc/shadow /sbin/bcheckrc
vi /etc/security/passwd vi /etc/shadow passwd root
Create new user useradd adduser adduser mkuser useradd useradd useradd
Delete user userdel rmuser rmuser rmuser userdel userdel userdel
List users lsuser -f ALL logins logins
Modify user account usermod chfn usermod, chfn, chsh, vipw chuser -a usermod usermod usermod
General Commands Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX Solaris Tru64
Unique host ID hostid hostid uname -i hostid hostid
Administrative Tools linuxconf /stand/sysinstall N/A smit sam admintool
Performance monitor top top top top top top top
monitor glance
System activity reporter sa sa sar sar sar
Virtual Memory statistics vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat vmstat
I/O statistics iostat iostat iostat iostat iostat iostat iostat
Error logs /var/log/messages /var/log/messages /var/log/messages alog -o -t boot dmesg dmesg uerf -R -o full
errpt
Max Physical RAM 64 GB {>2.3.24} 1M TB 4TB 16TB 4TB
Shared Memory sysctl kernel.shmmax sysctl hw.physmem 64K TB 8TB
Process Data Space 900 MB 384K TB 4TB
Swap device Varies Varies Varies /dev/hd6 /dev/vg00/lvol2 /dev/vx/dsk/swapvol /dev/rz0b
Swap file type partition type 82 swap swap /etc/swapspaces swap swap raw
Display swap size free swapinfo swapctl -l lsps -a swapinfo -a swap -l swapon -s
Activate Swap swapon -a swapon -a swapon -a swapon -a swapon -a swap -a swapon -a
Printers Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX Solaris Tru64
Printer Queues /var/spool/lpd/lp/* /var/spool/print /etc/qconfig /etc/lp/interface/* /etc/lp/interfaces/* /usr/spool/lpd
Stop LP /etc/init.d/lpd stop stopsrc -s lpd lpshut /usr/lib/lp/lpshut /sbin/init.d/lpd stop
Start LP /etc/init.d/lpd start lpd startsrc -s lpd lpsched /usr/lib/lp/lpsched /sbin/init.d/lpd start
Submit print jobs lpr lp enq lp lp lp
lp lpr lpr
lpr
qprt
LP statistics lpq lpq enq -A lpstat lpstat lpstat
lpq
lpstat
qchk
Remove print jobs lprm cancel cancel cancel cancel cancel
lprm lprm lprm lprm
qcan
enq -x
Add printer queue printtool smit mkpq lpadmin -p pq lpadmin -p pq lprsetup
Remove Printer queue smit rmpq lpadmin -x pq lpadmin -x pq lprsetup
Make default printer export LPDEST="pq" lpadmin -d pq lpadmin -d pq export PRINTER="lp"
TCP/IP Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX Solaris Tru64
Network IP configuration /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX /etc/rc.conf /etc/hostname.{interface} lsattr -E -l inet0 /etc/rc.config.d/netconf /etc/hostname.* /etc/rc.config
/etc/inet/*
/etc/defaultrouter
Hosts IP addresses /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /etc/inet/hosts /etc/hosts
Name service switch /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/host.conf /etc/host.conf /etc/netsvc.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/svc.conf
Network parameters sysctl -a | grep net sysctl sysctl net no -a ndd -h ndd /dev/[tcp|ip] ?
Routing daemon routed routed routed gated gated in.routed routed
NIC Configurations ifconfig -a ifconfig -a ifconfig -a ifconfig -a lanscan -v ifconfig -a ifconfig -a
Secondary IP Address modprobe ip_alias ifconfig xl0 alias IP ifconfig xl0 alias IP ifconfig en0 alias IP ifconfig lan0:1 IP ifconfig hme0:1 IP up ifconfig ln0 alias
ifconfig eth0:1 IP
Login prompt /etc/issue /etc/issue HERALD @ telnetd -b /etc/issue BANNER @ /etc/issue
/etc/security/login.cfg /etc/default/telnetd
Increase the # of pseudo-terminals cd /dev odmget -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" PdAt | sed "s/0-64/0-512/" | rebuild your kernel with these new values NPTY=# {/etc/system} cd /dev
./MAKEDEV -v pty odmchange -q "attribute=num and uniquetype=pty/pty/pty" -o PdAt NSTRPY=# set pt_cnt = # {SYSV} ./MAKEDEV PTY_1
set npty = # {BSD}
chdev -l pty0 -anum=256 -P reboot
reboot {/etc/iu.ap}
insf -d ptys -n # ptsl 0 # ldterm ttcompat
insf -d ptym -n #
insf -d pts -s # -e -v halt
boot -r
Maximum # of ptys 256 512 {MAXUSERS} 176 {BSD} 8192
3000 {SYSV}
Remote Shell ssh ssh remsh remsh rsh rsh
ssh rsh
YP/NIS service binder /sbin/ypbind /usr/sbin/ypbind /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind /usr/lib/netsvc/yp/ypbind /usr/sbin/ypbind
System Files Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX Solaris Tru64
NFS exported /etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/exports /etc/dfs/dfstab /etc/exports
/etc/dfs/sharetab
NFS Client mounted directories /var/lib/nfs/xtab showmount -a showmount -a /etc/xtab /etc/xtab /etc/rmtab /var/adm/mountdtab
Max File System Size 2 TB 128 GB 128 GB 1 TB 128 GB {<= 3.2G}
8000 TB {vxfs} 512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}
Max File Size 2 GB {512B block size} 64 GB 128 GB 1 TB 128 GB {<= 3.2G}
8192 GB {8KB block size} 2 GB {=<2.5.1} 512 GB {>= 4.0}
16 TB {advfs}
Max # File Descriptors sysctl fs.file-max 64 K 60~ K 64 K 64 K
DISK/LVM Commands Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX:Disk and Filesystem SOLARIS Tru64
Filesystem table /etc/fstab /etc/fstab /etc/fstab /etc/filesystems /etc/fstab /etc/vfstab /etc/fstab
Free disk blocks df -k df -k df -k df -k bdf df -k df -k
Device listing cat /proc/devices lsdev -C /sbin/ioscan sysdef
Disk information cat /proc/partitions fdisk -v ad0 bootinfo -s hdisk# diskinfo /dev/rdsk/c#t#d# format -d c#t#d# file /dev/rrz0c
format>current
format>inquiry
Disk Label fdisk -l disklabel ad0 disklabel wd0 lspv -l hdisk# pvdisplay -v /dev/dsk/C#t#d# prtvtoc disklabel -p rz0
LVM Concepts logical extents sub disk Partition logical extents sub disk sub disk
logical volume Volume Volume logical volume Volume Volume
Plex Plex Plex
volume group Volume group volume group disk group disk group
Journal Filesystem type ext3, reiserfs, xfs, jfs ufs+s ufs+s jfs vxfs vxfs advfs
Default volume group /dev/rootvg /dev/vg00 /dev/vx/dsk/rootdg /dev/vol/rootdg
Display volume group vgdisplay -v lsvg -l rootvg vgdisplay -v vg00 vxprint -l -g rootdg volprint -l -g rootdg
Modify physical volume pvchange chpv pvchange
Prepare physical disk pvcreate mkdev -c disk -l hdisk# pvcreate vxdiskadd voldiskadd
List physical volume pvdisplay vinum ld lspv pvdisplay vxprint -dl volprint -dl
Remove disk from volume group vgreduce reducevg vgreduce vxdg rmdisk voldg rmdisk
Move logical volumes to another physical volumes pvmove vinum move -f drive object migratepv pvmove vxassist move volassist move
Create volume group vgcreate mkvg vgcreate vxdg init voldg init
Remove volume group vgremove vgremove
Volume group availability vgchange chvg vgchange
varyonvg
varyoffvg
Restore volume group vgcfgrestore vgcfgrestore
Exports volume group vgexport exportvg vgexport vxdg deport voldg deport
Imports volume group vgimport importvg vgimport vxdg import voldg import
Volume group listing vgscan lsvg vgscan
Change logical volume characteristics lvchange chlv lvchange vxedit set voledit set
List logical volume lvdisplay vinum lv lslv lvdisplay vxprint -vl volprint -vl
Make logical volume lvcreate mklv lvcreate vxassist make volassist make
Extend logical volume lvextend extendlv lvextend vxassist growto volassist growto
Reduce logical volume lvreduce AIX reduce LV lvreduce vxassist shrinkto volassist shrinkto
Remove logical volume lvremove vinum rm vol rmlv lvremove vxedit rm voledit rm
Prepare boot volumes lilo, grub bootlist -m normal lvlnboot vxbootsetup
Remove boot volumes lvrmboot
Extend File system resize2fs, e2fsadm growfs chfs -a size=# /mt extendfs /dev/vg00/lvol8 vxva
fsadm -F vxfs -b {LE * 1024} /mt mkfs -M
Reduce/Split mirrors lvsplit rmlvcopy lvsplit
Merge mirrors lvmerge lvmerge
Create mirrors vinum mirror drive mklv -c 2 lvcreate -m 1 vxassist mirror volassist make vol 100mb mirror=true
Add mirrors mklvcopy lv 2 lvextend -m 1
Create striped volumes lvcreate -i 3 -I 64 vinum stripe drive mklv -u 3 -S 64K lvcreate -i 3 -I 64 vxassist make vol 100mb layout=raid5 volassist make vol 100mb layout=stripe
System recovery tape mksysb -i /dev/rmt0 /opt/ignite/bin/make_recovery /usr/sys/bin/btcreate
Backup tar cvf /dev/rst0 / vinum saveconfig tar cv / savevg -i rootvg fbackup ufsdump vdump
Restore tar xvf /dev/rst0 tar -C / -xv restvg frecover ufsrestore vrestore
MISC Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX SOLARIS Tru64
Startup script /etc/rc.d/rc /etc/rc /etc/rc /etc/rc /sbin/rc /sbin/init.d /sbin/init.d
Kernel /boot/vmlinuz /kernel /bsd /usr/lib/boot/unix_up /stand/vmunix /kernel/genunix /vmunix
Kernel Parameters sysctl -a sysctl -a sysctl -a lsattr -E -l sys0 sysdef sysdef -i sysconfig
kmtune dxkerneltuner
kmsystem
Reconfigure the kernel cd /usr/src/Redhat Linux cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf cd /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf/ cd /stand/build vi /etc/system doconfig
make mrproper cp GENERIC CUSTOM vi KERNEL chdev -l sys0 -a /usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -v -s system reboot
make menuconfig vi CUSTOM config KERNEL vi system
make dep config CUSTOM cd ../compile/KERNEL mk_kernel -s system
make clean cd ../../compile/CUSTOM make depend cd /stand
make bzimage make depend make mv system system.prev
make install make cp /bsd /bsd.old mv vmunix vmunix.prev
make modules make install cp bsd /bsd mv dlkm dlkm.prev
make modules_install reboot reboot mv /stand/build/system system
kmupdate /stand/build/vmunix_test
cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-2.2.16
mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.2.16.img 2.2.16
vi /etc/lilo.conf
lilo
List modules lsmod kldstat kmadmin -s modinfo
Load module insmod kldload kmadmin -L modload
Unload module rmmod kldunload kmadmin -U modunload
Initialize system netconf /stand/sysinstall install_assist set_parms initial sys-unconfig netsetup
Physical RAM free sysctl hw.physmem sysctl hw.physmem bootinfo -r grep -i Physical /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log prtconf uerf | grep memory
Kernel Bits getconf WORD_BIT getconf LONG_BIT getconf KERNEL_BITS isainfo -kv 64
Crash utility lcrash crash crash adb crash kdbx
Trace System Calls strace truss strace syscalls tusc truss trace
Machine model uname -m uname -m uname -m uname -m model uname -imp uname -p
bootinfo -m uname -m
OS Level uname -r uname -r uname -a oslevel uname -r uname -r sizer -v
Run Level runlevel who -r who -r who -r who -r
Core dump files /var/crash /var/adm/ras /var/adm/crash /var/crash/`uname -n`
Boot single user linux single ok boot -s boot -s Key on service mode/F4 >boot ok boot -s >>> boot -fl s
Boot from CD/Tape Interact with IPL ? Y
Select Maintenance ISL>hpux -iS
Limited function Shell
Maintenance mode linux single ok boot -as >boot ok boot -as
Interact with IPL ? Y
ISL>hpux -lm
Interrupt Key control-B Stop-A control-P
Return to console co ok go
Timezone Management /etc/sysconfig/clock /etc/localtime /etc/localtime /etc/environment /etc/TIMEZONE /etc/TIMEZONE /etc/svid3_tz
/etc/profile /etc/default/init timezone
NTP Daemon /etc/ntp.conf /etc/rc.conf {xntpd_enable="YES"} openntpd /etc/ntp.conf /etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons /etc/inet/ntp.conf rcmgr set XNTPD_CONF YES
/etc/rc.d/init.d/xntpd /etc/rc.network startsrc -s xntpd /sbin/init.d/xntpd /etc/init.d/xntpd /sbin/init.d/xntpd
Software Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX SOLARIS Tru64
Install Software rpm -i package pkg_add pkg_add installp -a swinstall pkgadd setld -l
Uninstall software rpm -e package pkg_delete pkg_delete installp -u swremove pkgrm setld -d
List installed software rpm -qa pkg_info pkg_info lslpp -L all swlist pkginfo setld -i
Verify installed software rpm -V package lppchk -v swlist -l fileset -a state pkginfo -i setld -v
pkginfo -p
List all files rpm -ql package pkg_info -L package pkg_info -L package lslpp -f fileset swlist -l file fileset pkgchk -l package setld -i package
List installed patches instfix -i swlist -l patch patchadd -p dupatch -track -type patch
what /stand/vmunix
Package owner rpm -qf file lslpp -w path swlist -l file | grep path pkgchk -l -p path
SW Directory /var/lib/rpm /var/db/pkg /usr/lpp /var/adm/sw/ /var/sadm /var/adm/smlogs
Devices Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX SOLARIS Tru64
Devices /dev /dev /dev /dev /dev /devices /dev
Install devices for attached peripherals /dev/MAKEDEV /dev/MAKEDEV /dev/MAKEDEV cfgmgr -v insf -e drvconfig scu scan edt
devlinks scsimgr -scan_all
disks
tapes
ports
Remove device rmdev -l rmsf rem_drv
Device drivers lscfg lsdev prtconf -D
CPU cat /proc/cpuinfo sysctl hw.model sysctl hw.model lsdev -Cc processor ioscan -fnC processor psrinfo -v psrinfo -v
List Terminal lsdev -Cc tty ioscan -fnC tty pmadm -l
Diagnostics pciconf -l diag stm /usr/platform/`uname -m`/
sbin/prtdiag
ok test-all
/opt/SUNWvts/bin/sunvts
Whole Disk /dev/sda /dev/ad0s1c /dev/wd0c /dev/hdisk# /dev/dsk/c#t#d0 /dev/c#t#d0s2 /dev/rz0c
CDROM /dev/cdrom /dev/acd0c /dev/cd0c /dev/cd0 /dev/dsk/c#t2d0 /dev/dsk/c#t6d0s2 /dev/rz3c
CDROM file type iso9660 cd9660 cd9660 cdrfs cdfs hsfs cdfs
Rewinding tape drive /dev/rst0 { c 9 0} /dev/rwt0d /dev/rst0 /dev/rmt0 /dev/rmt/0m /dev/rmt/0 /dev/rmt0
Non-rewinding tape drive /dev/nrst0 { c 9 128 } /dev/nrwt0d /dev/nrst0 /dev/rmt0.1 /dev/rmt/0mn /dev/rmt/0n /dev/nrmt0
Floppy drive /dev/fd0 /dev/fd0 /dev/fd0a /dev/rfd0 0 /dev/diskette /dev/fd0c
Links Redhat Linux FreeBSD OpenBSD AIX HP-UX SOLARIS Tru64
Home Page www.redhat.com www.freebsd.org www.openbsd.org AIX-FAQ HP-UX FAQ Solaris 2 FAQ Tru64 FAQ
Phone Number 1-888-REDHAT1 n/a n/a 1-800-CALL-AIX 1-800-633-3600 1-800-USA-4SUN